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Title: Introduction and Toxicology of Fungicides
Authors: Rachid, Rouabhi
Keywords: pesticides, fungicides
Issue Date: 14-Dec-2010
Publisher: Intech
Citation: 33
Abstract: Fungicides are either chemicals or biological agents that inhibit the growth of fungi or fungal spores. Modern fungicides do not kill fungi, they simply inhibit growth for a period of days or weeks. Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality and profit. Fungicides are used both in agriculture and to fight fungal infections in animals. Chemicals used to control oomycetes, which are not fungi, are also referred to as fungicides as oomycetes use the same mechanisms as fungi to infect plants (Latijnhouwers et al., 2000). Fungicides can either be contact, translaminar or systemic. Contact fungicides are not taken up into the plant tissue, & only protect the plant where the spray is deposited; translaminar fungicides redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf surface to the lower, unsprayed surface; systemic fungicides are taken up & redistributed through the xylem vessels to the upper parts of the plant. New leaf growth is protected for a short period. Most fungicides that can be bought retail are sold in a liquid form. The most common active ingredient is sulfur, present at 0.08% in weaker concentrates, and as high as 0.5% for more potent fungicides. Fungicides in powdered form are usually around 90% sulfur and are very toxic. Other active ingredients in fungicides include neem oil, rosemary oil, jojoba oil, and the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Fungicide residues have been found on food for human consumption, mostly from postharvest treatments (Brooks & Roberts, 1999). Some fungicides are dangerous to human health, such as vinclozolin, which has now been removed from use (Hrelia, 1996), FCX and DFB that are used as pesticides to control pests and they have many side effects on natural non-target organisms (Rouabhi et al., 2009). In this chapter, we will develop the fungicides and their toxicity on biological and ecological systems.
URI: http//localhost:8080/jspui/handle/123456789/158
ISSN: 10.5772/12967
Appears in Collections:Faculté des Science Exactes et des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie p

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